This online document addresses the short and long-term effects of nicotine addiction and the smoking of cigarettes, cigars and pipes. The negative health consequences of using spit tobacco, snuff, clove cigarettes, bidis and hookahs (water pipes) are discussed as well.
Review Date: October 31, 2014
American Cancer Society
This document provides questions and answers on smokeless tobacco (snuff, dip and chewing tobacco). Related health risks are noted, and resources that can help you quit are provided.
Review Date: June 01, 2015
NIH National Cancer Institute
This article offers tips on finding oral substitutes for smokeless tobacco that you enjoy, such as sugarless gum, hard candy, beef jerky or sunflower seeds. Nicotine gum might help you too. However, it is not a good idea to substitute cigarette smoking for smokeless tobacco.
Review Date: December 18, 2014
American Academy of Family Physicians