Birth control (also called contraception) can help you prevent pregnancy until you are ready for a baby. Some types of birth control can also help protect you and your sex partner from sexually transmitted diseases (STDs).
How do I choose the right birth control?
There isn’t one method of birth control that’s right for everyone. Each type of birth control has pros and cons. Here are some things to think about when choosing a birth control method:
- Do you want to have children some day? How soon?
- Do you have any health conditions?
- How often do you have sex?
- How many sex partners do you have?
- Does the birth control method protect against HIV and other STDs?
- How well does the birth control method work?
- Are there any side effects?
- Will you be able to use it correctly every time?
How does birth control work?
It depends on the type of birth control you use. Here are some of the most common methods of birth control.
IUDs (intrauterine devices)
An IUD is a small, T-shaped piece of plastic with copper or hormones. It’s put inside a woman’s uterus by a doctor or nurse.
There are 2 kinds:
- Copper IUD – This releases a small amount of copper to prevent sperm from fertilizing an egg. It can last for 5 to 10 years.
- Hormonal IUD – Hormonal IUDs release a small amount of hormone to prevent pregnancy. There are 3 different types of hormonal IUDs. One kind can last for up to 5 years. The other kinds can last for up to 3 years.
An IUD is very effective at preventing pregnancy. You don't feel the IUD when it’s in place – and there's nothing to do or remember.
If you have an IUD and you want to get pregnant, a doctor or nurse can easily remove it. Read more about IUDs.
These methods work by preventing a woman’s ovaries from releasing an egg each month. They also cause other changes that make it more difficult to get pregnant.
Some hormonal methods work better than others, and some require more effort to use. For example, birth control pills have to be taken every day, but implants last for up to 3 years.
Hormonal methods include:
- Hormonal IUD – can last up to 5 years
- Implant (a tiny tube put under the skin) – can last for 3 years
- Shot – given by a doctor or nurse every 3 months
- Patch – worn on the skin and replaced once a month
- Ring – put in the vagina and replaced once a month
- Birth control pills that you take every day
If you are interested in a hormonal method of birth control, talk with your doctor about which kind is best for you. Read more about hormonal birth control options.
Barrier methods work by preventing the sperm and egg from touching each other. Common barrier methods include:
- Male condoms (worn on the penis)
- Female condoms (placed on the outside and inside of the vagina)
- Birth control diaphragm or cervical cap (placed inside the vagina)
Male latex (rubber) condoms are also very effective in preventing HIV and reducing the risk of other STDs. Read more about barrier methods.
Natural family planning (NFP)
NFP works by learning when a woman is more likely to get pregnant. People who want to prevent pregnancy don’t have sex on these days or they use another method of birth control.
NFP is only an option for women who have regular periods. It may not be as effective at preventing pregnancies as some other forms of birth control, like IUDs or hormonal methods.
Couples can also use NFP when they want to get pregnant. Read more about natural family planning.
Sometimes people forget to use birth control (for example, they miss a pill or shot) or their birth control fails (like if the condom breaks).
There are 2 options for emergency contraception:
- Copper IUD – A doctor or nurse will need to place this inside the woman’s uterus within 5 days of unprotected sex.
- Emergency contraception pills (ECPs) – The woman will need to take ECPs as soon as possible within 5 days of unprotected sex. Adults age 18 and older can buy ECPs at a drugstore without a prescription.
Taking ECPs won’t stop or harm a pregnancy that has already happened. Read more about emergency contraception pills.
Sterilization is a permanent method of birth control. This is an option for people who are 100% sure they don’t want any more children.
What types of birth control help prevent STDs?
Next to abstinence (not having vaginal, anal, or oral sex), using a male condom made of latex is the best way to prevent some STDs, including HIV.
Barrier methods used inside the vagina, like the female condom and diaphragm, can also lower the risk of some STDs.
Non-barrier methods (like birth control pills, IUDs, and other hormonal methods) don’t prevent STDs. If you choose one of these types of birth control, keep in mind that it won't protect you from HIV and other STDs – so you may also want to use condoms for protection.
Do I need to see a doctor to get birth control?
It depends on which birth control method you choose. You can buy some birth control over the counter. Over the counter means you can buy it at a store without a prescription. For other methods, you will need to see a doctor or nurse.
Birth control methods you can get without a prescription include:
- Male condoms
- Female condoms
- Emergency contraception pills
- Birth control sponge
Birth control methods you can get only from a doctor or nurse include:
- Birth control pills
- Diaphragm and cervical cap
You need a medical procedure for:
- Sterilization (for both women and men)
- IUD (intrauterine device)
Check out these resources to learn more about the different types of birth control: